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    Kirkpatrick's Four Levels    Student Evaluation & Feedback
Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Evaluation
To assess the effectiveness of a training program, educators often turn to the four-level model created by Donald Kirkpatrick. According to his model, evaluation should begin with level one and then move sequentially through levels two, three and four as budget and time allow. Each successive level represents a more precise measure of the effectiveness of the training; however the higher levels require more rigorous and time-consuming analysis.
This page shows two ways of displaying Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Evaluation. First, the preferred manner per the Kirkpatrick's Partners website, and second, the way the four levels are commonly used in business. Many K-12 districts have developed their own variations.
Level 4:
To what degree targeted outcomes occur, as a result of the learning event(s) and subsequent reinforcement.
Level 3:
To what degree participants apply what they learned during training when they are back on the job.
Level 2:
To what degree participants acquire the intended knowledge, skills, and attitudes based on their participation in the learning event.
Level 1:
To what degree participants react favorably to the learning event.
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Level 1 - Reactions -- Evaluation at this level measures how participants in a training program react to the program.

Level 2 - Learning -- Evaluation at this level attempts to ascertain the extent students have advanced in skills, knowledge or attitude. Sometimes pre-tests and post-tests are used to assess the level of learning.

Level 3 - Transfer -- This level measures the transfer that occurred in learners' behavior due to the training program. In other words, "Are the newly acquired skills, knowledge or attitudes being used in the everyday environment of the learner?" Many trainers believe this is the truest assessment of a program's effectiveness.

Level 4 - Results -- Often referred to as "the bottom line," this level measures the success of a training program by measuring increased production, improved quality, reduced costs, reduced accidents, increased sales, or higher return on investment. However, determining results in financial terms is difficult to measure and difficult to link directly with training.

Kirkpatrick's Four Levels Resources
Slide Show  http://www.slideshare.net/sikojp/kirkpatricks-four-levels-of-evaluation-model
Kirkpatrick Partners  http://www.kirkpatrickpartners.com
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Course Evaluation & Student Feedback

When you want to adapt a classroom training feedback form for use with online students, some questions will need to be replaced. For instance, you could not very well ask online students about the refreshments or facilities. You also wouldn't be able to ask them how to demonstrate tightening a wingnut on a widget.

These are some questions from a classroom evaluation form:

  1. Were the classroom facilities adequate?
  2. Were goals and objectives clearly stated at the beginning of class?
  3. Were the students encouraged to introduce themselves?
  4. Did the instructor have good eye contact?
  5. Did the instructor adequately answer student questions?
  6. Were the refreshments adequate?
  7. Were the handouts adequate and thorough?
  8. Was the classroom neat and orderly?
  9. Was the instructor knowledgeable about the subject?
  10. Were the classroom aides attentive and helpful?
  11. Did the class begin and end on time?

Questions 1, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 11 apply only to classroom training. Notice that these are all True/False questions, which leave no room for an "average" or "fair" assessment.


The following questions come from an online training evaluation form that included radio buttons; on this form, students could choose: excellent, very good, good, fair, poor, or not applicable.

  1. Organization of the online course
  2. Usefulness of the online course
  3. Layout of the online course materials
  4. Links between the online course pages
  5. Links to other websites
  6. Availability of the Online Seminar instructor
  7. Availability of the technical support personnel
  8. In general, this online training has been ...

Most online training student evaluations ask questions that require keyboard or mouse input, where students respond by clicking checkboxes or radio buttons. Check out the resources below:
Course Evaluation & Feedback Resource
Training Evaluation Questionnaire   http://treeves.coe.uga.edu/edit8350/QUES.html
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